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The founders of Carthage also established a Tophet , which was altered in Roman times. A Carthaginian invasion of Italy led by Hannibal during the Second Punic War , one of a series of wars with Rome , nearly crippled the rise of Roman power.

During the Roman period, the area of what is now Tunisia enjoyed a huge development. The economy, mainly during the Empire, boomed: the prosperity of the area depended on agriculture.

Called the Granary of the Empire , the area of actual Tunisia and coastal Tripolitania , according to one estimate, produced one million tons of cereals each year, one-quarter of which was exported to the Empire.

Additional crops included beans, figs, grapes, and other fruits. By the 2nd century, olive oil rivaled cereals as an export item.

In addition to the cultivations and the capture and transporting of exotic wild animals from the western mountains, the principal production and exports included the textiles, marble, wine, timber, livestock, pottery such as African Red Slip , and wool.

There was even a huge production of mosaics and ceramics, exported mainly to Italy, in the central area of El Djem where there was the second biggest amphitheater in the Roman Empire.

Berber bishop Donatus Magnus was the founder of a Christian group known as the Donatists. Sometime between the second half of the 7th century and the early part of the 8th century, Arab Muslim conquest occurred in the region.

They founded the first Islamic city in Northwest Africa, Kairouan. Tunis was taken in , re-taken by the Byzantine Eastern Romans in , but lost finally in The transition from a Latin-speaking Christian Berber society to a Muslim and mostly Arabic-speaking society took over years the equivalent process in Egypt and the Fertile Crescent took years and resulted in the final disappearance of Christianity and Latin in the 12th or 13th centuries.

The majority of the population were not Muslim until quite late in the 9th century; a vast majority were during the 10th.

Also, some Tunisian Christians emigrated; some richer members of society did so after the conquest in and others were welcomed by Norman rulers to Sicily or Italy in the 11th and 12th centuries — the logical destination because of the year close connection between the two regions.

The Arab governors of Tunis founded the Aghlabid dynasty , which ruled Tunisia, Tripolitania and eastern Algeria from to The depredation of the Tunisian campaigns by the Banu Hilal , a warlike Arab Bedouin tribe encouraged by the Fatimids of Egypt to seize Northwest Africa, sent the region's rural and urban economic life into further decline.

The main Tunisian cities were conquered by the Normans of Sicily under the Kingdom of Africa in the 12th century, but following the conquest of Tunisia in — by the Almohads the Normans were evacuated to Sicily.

Communities of Tunisian Christians would still exist in Nefzaoua up to the 14th century. Despite the prestige of the new masters, the country was still unruly, with continuous rioting and fighting between the townsfolk and wandering Arabs and Turks, the latter being subjects of the Muslim Armenian adventurer Karakush.

Also, Tunisia was occupied by Ayyubids between and and again between and The greatest threat to Almohad rule in Tunisia was the Banu Ghaniya , relatives of the Almoravids , who from their base in Mallorca tried to restore Almoravid rule over the Maghreb.

Around they succeeded in extending their rule over the whole of Tunisia until they were crushed by Almohad troops in Tunisia remained part of the Almohad state, until when the son of Abu Hafs declared himself independent.

During the reign of the Hafsid dynasty , fruitful commercial relationships were established with several Christian Mediterranean states.

In the last years of the Hafsid dynasty , Spain seized many of the coastal cities, but these were recovered by the Ottoman Empire.

Initially under Turkish rule from Algiers, soon the Ottoman Porte appointed directly for Tunis a governor called the Pasha supported by janissary forces.

Before long, however, Tunisia became in effect an autonomous province, under the local Bey. Under its Turkish governors, the Beys , Tunisia attained virtual independence.

The Hussein dynasty of Beys, established in , lasted until During this era the governing councils controlling Tunisia remained largely composed of a foreign elite who continued to conduct state business in the Turkish language.

Attacks on European shipping were made by corsairs , primarily from Algiers, but also from Tunis and Tripoli , yet after a long period of declining raids the growing power of the European states finally forced its termination.

Under the Ottoman Empire, the boundaries of Tunisia contracted; it lost territory to the west Constantine and to the east Tripoli.

The plague epidemics ravaged Tunisia in —, — and — In the 19th century, the rulers of Tunisia became aware of the ongoing efforts at political and social reform in the Ottoman capital.

The Bey of Tunis then, by his own lights but informed by the Turkish example, attempted to effect a modernizing reform of institutions and the economy.

This was the reason or pretext for French forces to establish a protectorate in In , Tunisia declared itself bankrupt and an international financial commission took control over its economy.

In , using the pretext of a Tunisian incursion into Algeria , the French invaded with an army of about 36, and forced the Bey to agree to the terms of the Treaty of Bardo Al Qasr as Sa'id.

Under French colonization, European settlements in the country were actively encouraged; the number of French colonists grew from 34, in to , in In there were , Italians in Tunisia.

Thus, the persecution, and murder of the Jews from to was part of the Shoah in France. From —, Tunisia was the scene of the Tunisia Campaign , a series of battles between the Axis and Allied forces.

The battle opened with initial success by the German and Italian forces, but the massive supply and numerical superiority of the Allies led to the Axis surrender on 13 May Following a report by Amnesty International , The Guardian called Tunisia "one of the most modern but repressive countries in the Arab world".

He was consistently re-elected with enormous majorities every five years well over 80 percent of the vote , the last being 25 October , [70] until he fled the country amid popular unrest in January Ben Ali and his family were accused of corruption [71] and plundering the country's money.

Economic liberalisation provided further opportunities for financial mismanagement, [72] while corrupt members of the Trabelsi family, most notably in the cases of Imed Trabelsi and Belhassen Trabelsi , controlled much of the business sector in the country.

Independent human rights groups, such as Amnesty International , Freedom House , and Protection International, documented that basic human and political rights were not respected.

The Tunisian Revolution [81] [82] was an intensive campaign of civil resistance that was precipitated by high unemployment , food inflation , corruption , [83] a lack of freedom of speech and other political freedoms [84] and poor living conditions.

Labour unions were said to be an integral part of the protests. The catalyst for mass demonstrations was the death of Mohamed Bouazizi , a year-old Tunisian street vendor, who set himself afire on 17 December in protest at the confiscation of his wares and the humiliation inflicted on him by a municipal official named Faida Hamdy.

Anger and violence intensified following Bouazizi's death on 4 January , ultimately leading longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali to resign and flee the country on 14 January , after 23 years in power.

Protests continued for banning of the ruling party and the eviction of all its members from the transitional government formed by Mohammed Ghannouchi.

Eventually the new government gave in to the demands. A Tunis court banned the ex-ruling party RCD and confiscated all its resources. A decree by the minister of the interior banned the "political police", special forces which were used to intimidate and persecute political activists.

On 3 March , the interim president announced that elections to a Constituent Assembly would be held on 24 July The Ennahda Movement , formerly banned under the Ben Ali regime, came out of the election as the largest party, with 89 seats out of a total of In March , Ennahda declared it will not support making sharia the main source of legislation in the new constitution, maintaining the secular nature of the state.

Ennahda's stance on the issue was criticized by hardline Islamists, who wanted strict sharia, but was welcomed by secular parties.

In , President Moncef Marzouki established Tunisia's Truth and Dignity Commission , as a key part of creating a national reconciliation.

Tunisia was hit by two terror attacks on foreign tourists in , first killing 22 people at the Bardo National Museum , and later killing 38 people at the Sousse beachfront.

Tunisian president Beji Caid Essebsi renewed the state of emergency in October for three more months. It is bordered by Algeria on the west and southwest and Libya on the south east.

An abrupt southward turn of the Mediterranean coast in northern Tunisia gives the country two distinctive Mediterranean coasts, west—east in the north, and north—south in the east.

Though it is relatively small in size, Tunisia has great environmental diversity due to its north—south extent. Its east—west extent is limited.

Differences in Tunisia, like the rest of the Maghreb, are largely north—south environmental differences defined by sharply decreasing rainfall southward from any point.

The Dorsal, the eastern extension of the Atlas Mountains, runs across Tunisia in a northeasterly direction from the Algerian border in the west to the Cape Bon peninsula in the east.

North of the Dorsal is the Tell, a region characterized by low, rolling hills and plains, again an extension of mountains to the west in Algeria.

The Sahel , a broadening coastal plain along Tunisia's eastern Mediterranean coast, is among the world's premier areas of olive cultivation.

Inland from the Sahel, between the Dorsal and a range of hills south of Gafsa, are the Steppes. Much of the southern region is semi-arid and desert.

In maritime terms, the country claims a contiguous zone of 24 nautical miles Tunisia's climate is Mediterranean in the north, with mild rainy winters and hot, dry summers.

The terrain in the north is mountainous, which, moving south, gives way to a hot, dry central plain. The south is semiarid , and merges into the Sahara.

A series of salt lakes , known as chotts or shatts , lie in an east—west line at the northern edge of the Sahara, extending from the Gulf of Gabes into Algeria.

Tunisia is a representative democracy and a republic with a president serving as head of state , a prime minister as head of government , a unicameral parliament , and a civil law court system.

The Constitution of Tunisia , adopted 26 January , guarantees rights for women and states that the President's religion "shall be Islam".

In October Tunisia held its first elections under the new constitution following the Arab Spring. The number of legalized political parties in Tunisia has grown considerably since the revolution.

There are now over legal parties, including several that existed under the former regime. While some older parties are well-established and can draw on previous party structures, many of the plus parties extant as of February are small.

The Tunisian legal system is heavily influenced by French civil law , while the Law of Personal Status is based on Islamic law.

A Code of Personal Status was adopted shortly after independence in , which, among other things, gave women full legal status allowing them to run and own businesses, have bank accounts, and seek passports under their own authority.

The code outlawed the practices of polygamy and repudiation and a husband's right to unilaterally divorce his wife. After the revolution, a number of Salafist groups emerged and in some occasions have violently repressed artistic expression that is viewed to be hostile to Islam.

Since the revolution, some non-governmental organizations have reconstituted themselves and hundreds of new ones have emerged.

For instance, the Tunisian Human Rights League , the first human rights organization in Africa and the Arab world, operated under restrictions and state intrusion for over half of its existence, but is now free to operate.

Homosexuality is illegal in Tunisia and can be punished by up to three years in prison. The Tunisian regime has been criticised [ by whom? Prisons are crowded and drug offenders represent nearly a third of the prison population.

In , Tunisia became the first Arab country to outlaw domestic violence against women, which was previously not a crime. As of [update] , Tunisia had an army of 27, personnel equipped with 84 main battle tanks and 48 light tanks.

The navy had 4, personnel operating 25 patrol boats and 6 other craft. Paramilitary forces consisted of a 12,member national guard. The army is responsible for national defence and also internal security.

The military has historically played a professional, apolitical role in defending the country from external threats. Since January and at the direction of the executive branch, the military has taken on increasing responsibility for domestic security and humanitarian crisis response.

Tunisia is subdivided into 24 governorates Wilaya , which are further divided into " delegations " or " districts " mutamadiyat , and further subdivided into municipalities baladiyats [] and sectors imadats.

Tunisia has a diverse economy, ranging from agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and petroleum products, to tourism. The agricultural sector accounts for The industrial sector is mainly made up of clothing and footwear manufacturing, production of car parts, and electric machinery.

Tunisia was in ranked the most competitive economy in Africa and the 40th in the world by the World Economic Forum. The European Union remains Tunisia's first trading partner, currently accounting for Tunisia is one of the European Union's most established trading partners in the Mediterranean region and ranks as the EU's 30th largest trading partner.

Tunisia was the first Mediterranean country to sign an Association Agreement with the European Union, in July , although even before the date of entry came into force, Tunisia started dismantling tariffs on bilateral EU trade.

Tunisia finalised the tariffs dismantling for industrial products in and therefore was the first non-EU Mediterranean country to enter in a free trade area with EU.

Tunis Sports City is an entire sports city currently being constructed in Tunis, Tunisia. Tunisia Economic City is a city being constructed near Tunis in Enfidha.

The project is financed by Tunisian and foreign enterprises. Days before Tunisia's parliamentary elections, the nation finds itself struggling with a sluggish economy.

Nevertheless, Tunisia could not accomplish anything more than freedom and democracy. It still finds itself hanging between inflation and unemployment while looking up to the 6 October elections with hope of a reform.

Among Tunisia's tourist attractions are its cosmopolitan capital city of Tunis, the ancient ruins of Carthage, the Muslim and Jewish quarters of Jerba, and coastal resorts outside of Monastir.

According to The New York Times, Tunisia is "known for its golden beaches, sunny weather and affordable luxuries". Sources of electricity production in Tunisia [].

In , a total of 13, GWh was produced in the country. The main field is El Bourma. Oil production began in in Tunisia.

Currently there are 12 oil fields. Tunisia had plans for two nuclear power stations , to be operational by Both facilities are projected to produce — MW.

France is set to become an important partner in Tunisia's nuclear power plans, having signed an agreement, along with other partners, to deliver training and technology.

Instead, Tunisia is considering other options to diversify its energy mix, such as renewable energies, coal, shale gas, liquified natural gas and constructing a submarine power interconnection with Italy.

A new airport, Enfidha — Hammamet International Airport opened in The airport is located north of Sousse at Enfidha and is to mainly serve the resorts of Hamammet and Port El Kantaoui, together with inland cities such as Kairouan.

Tunisia has achieved the highest access rates to water supply and sanitation services in the Middle East and North Africa. In , ONAS was established to manage the sanitation sector.

Since , ONAS has had the status of a main operator for protection of water environment and combating pollution. According to the CIA, as of , Tunisia has a population of 11,, inhabitants.

According to the Tunisian census, Tunisia had a population at the time of 3,, residents, of which mainly Berbers and Arabs.

Amazighs are concentrated in the Dahar mountains and on the island of Djerba in the south-east and in the Khroumire mountainous region in the north-west.

That said, an important number of genetic and other historical studies point out to the predominance of the Amazighs in Tunisia. An Ottoman influence has been particularly significant in forming the Turco-Tunisian community.

Other peoples have also migrated to Tunisia during different periods of time, including West Africans, Greeks , Romans , Phoenicians Punics , Jews , and French settlers.

From the late 19th century to after World War II, Tunisia was home to large populations of French and Italians , Europeans in , [] although nearly all of them, along with the Jewish population, left after Tunisia became independent.

The history of the Jews in Tunisia goes back some 2, years. In the Jewish population was an estimated ,, but by only about remained.

The first people known to history in what is now Tunisia were the Berbers. There was a continuing inflow of nomadic Arab tribes from Arabia.

According to Matthew Carr, "As many as eighty thousand Moriscos settled in Tunisia, most of them in and around the capital, Tunis, which still contains a quarter known as Zuqaq al-Andalus, or Andalusia Alley.

Arabic is the official language , and Tunisian Arabic , known as Tounsi, [] is the national, vernacular variety of Arabic and is used by the public.

French also plays a major role in Tunisian society, despite having no official status. It is widely used in education e.

However, the Turks brought with them the teaching of the Hanafi School during the Ottoman rule, which still survives among the Turkish descended families today, and their mosques traditionally have octagonal minarets.

Tunisia has a sizable Christian community of around over 35, adherents, [] [] mainly Catholics 22, and to a lesser degree Protestants.

Berber Christians continued to live in some Nefzaoua villages up until the early 15th century [] and the community of Tunisian Christians existed in the town of Tozeur up to the 18th century.

One-third of the Jewish population lives in and around the capital. The remainder lives on the island of Djerba with 39 synagogues where the Jewish community dates back 2, years, [] in Sfax, and in Hammam-Lif.

Many Jews consider it a pilgrimage site, with celebrations taking place there once every year due to its age and the legend that the synagogue was built using stones from Solomon's temple.

The constitution declares Islam as the official state religion and requires the President to be Muslim. Aside from the president, Tunisians enjoy a significant degree of religious freedom, a right enshrined and protected in its constitution, which guarantees the freedom of thoughts, beliefs and to practice one's religion.

The country has a secular culture where religion is separated from not only political, but in public life. During the pre-revolution era there were at some point restrictions in the wearing of Islamic head scarves hijab in government offices and on public streets and public gatherings.

The government believed the hijab is a "garment of foreign origin having a partisan connotation". There were reports that the Tunisian police harassed men with "Islamic" appearance such as those with beards , detained them, and sometimes compelled men to shave their beards off.

In , the former Tunisian president declared that he would "fight" the hijab, which he refers to as "ethnic clothing". After the revolution however, a moderate Islamist government was elected leading to more freedom in the practice of religion.

It has also made room for the rise of fundamentalist groups such as the Salafists , who call for a strict interpretation of Sharia law.

Individual Tunisians are tolerant of religious freedom and generally do not inquire about a person's personal beliefs. In a handful of men were arrested for eating in public during Ramadan; they were convicted of committing "a provocative act of public indecency" and sentenced to month-long jail sentences.

The state in Tunisia has a role as a "guardian of religion" which was used to justify the arrests. A basic education for children between the ages of 6 and 16 has been compulsory since Tunisia ranked 17th in the category of "quality of the [higher] educational system" and 21st in the category of "quality of primary education" in The Global Competitiveness Report —9, released by The World Economic Forum.

While children generally acquire Tunisian Arabic at home, when they enter school at age 6, they are taught to read and write in Standard Arabic.

From the age of 7, they are taught French while English is introduced at the age of 8. The Enseignement secondaire is divided into two stages: general academic and specialized.

The higher education system in Tunisia has experienced a rapid expansion and the number of students has more than tripled over the past 10 years from approximately , in to , in The gross enrollment rate at the tertiary level in was 31 percent, with gender parity index of GER of 1.

In , spending on healthcare accounted for 3. In , there were The birth of Tunisian contemporary painting is strongly linked to the School of Tunis, established by a group of artists from Tunisia united by the desire to incorporate native themes and rejecting the influence of Orientalist colonial painting.

Given its doctrine, some members have therefore turned to the sources of aesthetic Arab-Muslim art: such as miniature Islamic architecture, etc. After independence in , the art movement in Tunisia was propelled by the dynamics of nation building and by artists serving the state.

Sadok Gmech draws his inspiration from national wealth while Moncef Ben Amor turns to fantasy.

In another development, Youssef Rekik reused the technique of painting on glass and founded Nja Mahdaoui calligraphy with its mystical dimension.

There are currently fifty art galleries housing exhibitions of Tunisian and international artists. A new exposition opened in an old monarchal palace in Bardo dubbed the "awakening of a nation".

The exposition boasts documents and artifacts from the Tunisian reformist monarchal rule in mid 19th century. Tunisian literature exists in two forms: Arabic and French.

Arabic literature dates back to the 7th century with the arrival of Arab civilization in the region.

It is more important in both volume and value than French literature, introduced during the French protectorate from Among the literary figures include Ali Douagi , who has produced more than radio stories, over poems and folk songs and nearly 15 plays, [] Khraief Bashir, an Arabic novelist who published many notable books in the s and which caused a scandal because the dialogues were written in Tunisian dialect, [] and others such as Moncef Ghachem, Mohamed Salah Ben Mrad , or Mahmoud Messadi.

As for poetry, Tunisian poetry typically opts for nonconformity and innovation with poets such as Aboul-Qacem Echebbi. As for literature in French, it is characterized by its critical approach.

The themes of wandering, exile and heartbreak are the focus of their creative writing. The national bibliography lists non-school books published in in Tunisia, with titles in Arabic.

In Tunisian American creative nonfiction scribe and translator Med-Ali Mekki who wrote many books, not for publication but just for his own private reading translated the new Constitution of the Tunisian Republic from Arabic to English for the first time in Tunisian bibliographical history, the book was published worldwide the following year and it was the Internet's most viewed and downloaded Tunisian book.

At the beginning of the 20th century, musical activity was dominated by the liturgical repertoire associated with different religious brotherhoods and secular repertoire which consisted of instrumental pieces and songs in different Andalusian forms and styles of origins, essentially borrowing characteristics of musical language.

In " The Rachidia " was founded well known thanks to artists from the Jewish community. The founding in of a musical school helped revive Arab Andalusian music largely to a social and cultural revival led by the elite of the time who became aware of the risks of loss of the musical heritage and which they believed threatened the foundations of Tunisian national identity.

The institution did not take long to assemble a group of musicians, poets, scholars. The creation of Radio Tunis in allowed musicians a greater opportunity to disseminate their works.

On 7 November , President Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali announced the demerger of the business, which became effective on 31 August Most programs are in Arabic but some are in French.

Before the recent democratic transition, although freedom of the press was formally guaranteed by the constitution, almost all newspapers have in practice followed the government line report.

Critical approach to the activities of the president, government and the Constitutional Democratic Rally Party then in power were suppressed.

In essence, the media was dominated by state authorities through the Agence Tunis Afrique Presse. This has changed since, as the media censorship by the authorities have been largely abolished, and self-censorship has significantly decreased.

Football is the most popular sport in Tunisia. The premier football league is the " Tunisian Ligue Professionnelle 1 ".

The Tunisia national handball team has participated in several handball world championships. In , Tunisia came fourth.

The national league consists of about 12 teams, with ES. Sahel and Esperance S. Tunis dominating. The most famous Tunisian handball player is Wissem Hmam.

In the Handball Championship in Tunis , Wissem Hmam was ranked as the top scorer of the tournament. The Tunisian national handball team won the African Cup ten times, being the team dominating this competition.

Tunisia's national basketball team has emerged as a top side in Africa. The team won the Afrobasket and hosted Africa's top basketball event in , and In boxing , Victor Perez "Young" was world champion in the flyweight weight class in and In , Tunisia participated for the seventh time in her history in the Summer Paralympic Games.

She finished the competition with 19 medals; 9 golds, 5 silvers and 5 bronzes. Tunisia was classified 14th on the Paralympics medal table and 5th in Athletics.

Tunisia was suspended from Davis Cup play for the year , because the Tunisian Tennis Federation was found to have ordered Malek Jaziri not to compete against an Israeli tennis player, Amir Weintraub.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 2 August Country in North Africa.

Tunisian Arabic [3] Berber [4] [5] [6] [7] French administrative, commercial and educational. See also: Etymology of Tunis. Main article: History of Tunisia.

Main articles: Capsian culture and Ancient Carthage. Main article: History of medieval Tunisia. Main article: Ottoman Tunisia.

Main article: French protectorate of Tunisia. Main article: History of modern Tunisia. See also: Tunisian Revolution. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Geography of Tunisia.

Main article: Politics of Tunisia. Main article: Human rights in Tunisia. Main article: Tunisian Armed Forces. Main articles: Governorates of Tunisia and Delegations of Tunisia.

Mediterranean sea. Sidi Bouzid. Ben Arous. Main article: Economy of Tunisia. Main article: Tourism in Tunisia. Main article: Energy sector in Tunisia.

Main article: Transport in Tunisia. Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Tunisia. Main article: Tunisian people.

Main article: Languages of Tunisia. Largest cities or towns in Tunisia According to the Census []. Tunisia Religions Islam. Main article: Religion in Tunisia.

Main article: Education in Tunisia. Main article: Health in Tunisia. Main article: Culture of Tunisia.

Main article: Tunisian literature. Main article: Music of Tunisia. Main article: Media of Tunisia. Main article: Sport in Tunisia.

Africa portal. Archived from the original PDF on 9 February Retrieved 10 February Translation by the University of Bern: "Tunisia is a free State, independent and sovereign; its religion is the Islam, its language is Arabic, and its form is the Republic.

Ethnologue 19 February Retrieved on 5 September Archived from the original on 18 October CIA World Factbook.

International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. Retrieved 7 January National Institute of Statistics-Tunisia.

Retrieved 2 March Authentic and reliable information distribution summarizes the role to be played by the portal for Tunisians and the global region.

We understand the region quite well and are determined to be true to the information. At Tunisia Live we envision a state where information is accessible to all in whatever format they can quickly find one to add value, get enlightenment, and discover current information which can help others around.

Current news, happenings around the world and the African region has a strong place in our hearts. Top news media all around the globe have given us a good foundation to continue building on.

This is not talking about a bragging right here, events and happenings speak for themselves. DeepLush — online project displaying the intimacy between performers in adult industry.

What can be achieved when we try to bring emotions into a scene. Watch this production preview videos on its official tube website.

LilHumpers — an awesome approach to the generation differences in the adult industry. See young guys having their luck with experienced performers.

To do so simply follow this link. Hurricanes that have come and gone have left major damages in physical structures and often affect the economy of the US.

Currently, hurricane Florence is sweeping through Carolina and adjoining states in the US. The damage cannot be quantified as little.

Homes, lives, property, investments and companies all suffer the consequences. With flooding still expected to continue for days, it may still be difficult to conclude on what the outcomes will be.

We are equipped to deliver the goods in news reportage and available to answer your questions and share in your stories on news around Tunisia.

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Tounsia Live Video

Eli Baadou S01 Episode 39 30-06-2020 Partie 02

Tounsia Live Video

Eli Baadou S01 Episode 39 30-06-2020 Partie 02

Under the Ottoman Empire, the boundaries of Tunisia contracted; it lost territory to the west Constantine and to the east Tripoli.

The plague epidemics ravaged Tunisia in —, — and — In the 19th century, the rulers of Tunisia became aware of the ongoing efforts at political and social reform in the Ottoman capital.

The Bey of Tunis then, by his own lights but informed by the Turkish example, attempted to effect a modernizing reform of institutions and the economy.

This was the reason or pretext for French forces to establish a protectorate in In , Tunisia declared itself bankrupt and an international financial commission took control over its economy.

In , using the pretext of a Tunisian incursion into Algeria , the French invaded with an army of about 36, and forced the Bey to agree to the terms of the Treaty of Bardo Al Qasr as Sa'id.

Under French colonization, European settlements in the country were actively encouraged; the number of French colonists grew from 34, in to , in In there were , Italians in Tunisia.

Thus, the persecution, and murder of the Jews from to was part of the Shoah in France. From —, Tunisia was the scene of the Tunisia Campaign , a series of battles between the Axis and Allied forces.

The battle opened with initial success by the German and Italian forces, but the massive supply and numerical superiority of the Allies led to the Axis surrender on 13 May Following a report by Amnesty International , The Guardian called Tunisia "one of the most modern but repressive countries in the Arab world".

He was consistently re-elected with enormous majorities every five years well over 80 percent of the vote , the last being 25 October , [70] until he fled the country amid popular unrest in January Ben Ali and his family were accused of corruption [71] and plundering the country's money.

Economic liberalisation provided further opportunities for financial mismanagement, [72] while corrupt members of the Trabelsi family, most notably in the cases of Imed Trabelsi and Belhassen Trabelsi , controlled much of the business sector in the country.

Independent human rights groups, such as Amnesty International , Freedom House , and Protection International, documented that basic human and political rights were not respected.

The Tunisian Revolution [81] [82] was an intensive campaign of civil resistance that was precipitated by high unemployment , food inflation , corruption , [83] a lack of freedom of speech and other political freedoms [84] and poor living conditions.

Labour unions were said to be an integral part of the protests. The catalyst for mass demonstrations was the death of Mohamed Bouazizi , a year-old Tunisian street vendor, who set himself afire on 17 December in protest at the confiscation of his wares and the humiliation inflicted on him by a municipal official named Faida Hamdy.

Anger and violence intensified following Bouazizi's death on 4 January , ultimately leading longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali to resign and flee the country on 14 January , after 23 years in power.

Protests continued for banning of the ruling party and the eviction of all its members from the transitional government formed by Mohammed Ghannouchi.

Eventually the new government gave in to the demands. A Tunis court banned the ex-ruling party RCD and confiscated all its resources. A decree by the minister of the interior banned the "political police", special forces which were used to intimidate and persecute political activists.

On 3 March , the interim president announced that elections to a Constituent Assembly would be held on 24 July The Ennahda Movement , formerly banned under the Ben Ali regime, came out of the election as the largest party, with 89 seats out of a total of In March , Ennahda declared it will not support making sharia the main source of legislation in the new constitution, maintaining the secular nature of the state.

Ennahda's stance on the issue was criticized by hardline Islamists, who wanted strict sharia, but was welcomed by secular parties. In , President Moncef Marzouki established Tunisia's Truth and Dignity Commission , as a key part of creating a national reconciliation.

Tunisia was hit by two terror attacks on foreign tourists in , first killing 22 people at the Bardo National Museum , and later killing 38 people at the Sousse beachfront.

Tunisian president Beji Caid Essebsi renewed the state of emergency in October for three more months.

It is bordered by Algeria on the west and southwest and Libya on the south east. An abrupt southward turn of the Mediterranean coast in northern Tunisia gives the country two distinctive Mediterranean coasts, west—east in the north, and north—south in the east.

Though it is relatively small in size, Tunisia has great environmental diversity due to its north—south extent. Its east—west extent is limited. Differences in Tunisia, like the rest of the Maghreb, are largely north—south environmental differences defined by sharply decreasing rainfall southward from any point.

The Dorsal, the eastern extension of the Atlas Mountains, runs across Tunisia in a northeasterly direction from the Algerian border in the west to the Cape Bon peninsula in the east.

North of the Dorsal is the Tell, a region characterized by low, rolling hills and plains, again an extension of mountains to the west in Algeria.

The Sahel , a broadening coastal plain along Tunisia's eastern Mediterranean coast, is among the world's premier areas of olive cultivation. Inland from the Sahel, between the Dorsal and a range of hills south of Gafsa, are the Steppes.

Much of the southern region is semi-arid and desert. In maritime terms, the country claims a contiguous zone of 24 nautical miles Tunisia's climate is Mediterranean in the north, with mild rainy winters and hot, dry summers.

The terrain in the north is mountainous, which, moving south, gives way to a hot, dry central plain. The south is semiarid , and merges into the Sahara.

A series of salt lakes , known as chotts or shatts , lie in an east—west line at the northern edge of the Sahara, extending from the Gulf of Gabes into Algeria.

Tunisia is a representative democracy and a republic with a president serving as head of state , a prime minister as head of government , a unicameral parliament , and a civil law court system.

The Constitution of Tunisia , adopted 26 January , guarantees rights for women and states that the President's religion "shall be Islam".

In October Tunisia held its first elections under the new constitution following the Arab Spring. The number of legalized political parties in Tunisia has grown considerably since the revolution.

There are now over legal parties, including several that existed under the former regime. While some older parties are well-established and can draw on previous party structures, many of the plus parties extant as of February are small.

The Tunisian legal system is heavily influenced by French civil law , while the Law of Personal Status is based on Islamic law.

A Code of Personal Status was adopted shortly after independence in , which, among other things, gave women full legal status allowing them to run and own businesses, have bank accounts, and seek passports under their own authority.

The code outlawed the practices of polygamy and repudiation and a husband's right to unilaterally divorce his wife. After the revolution, a number of Salafist groups emerged and in some occasions have violently repressed artistic expression that is viewed to be hostile to Islam.

Since the revolution, some non-governmental organizations have reconstituted themselves and hundreds of new ones have emerged.

For instance, the Tunisian Human Rights League , the first human rights organization in Africa and the Arab world, operated under restrictions and state intrusion for over half of its existence, but is now free to operate.

Homosexuality is illegal in Tunisia and can be punished by up to three years in prison. The Tunisian regime has been criticised [ by whom? Prisons are crowded and drug offenders represent nearly a third of the prison population.

In , Tunisia became the first Arab country to outlaw domestic violence against women, which was previously not a crime. As of [update] , Tunisia had an army of 27, personnel equipped with 84 main battle tanks and 48 light tanks.

The navy had 4, personnel operating 25 patrol boats and 6 other craft. Paramilitary forces consisted of a 12,member national guard.

The army is responsible for national defence and also internal security. The military has historically played a professional, apolitical role in defending the country from external threats.

Since January and at the direction of the executive branch, the military has taken on increasing responsibility for domestic security and humanitarian crisis response.

Tunisia is subdivided into 24 governorates Wilaya , which are further divided into " delegations " or " districts " mutamadiyat , and further subdivided into municipalities baladiyats [] and sectors imadats.

Tunisia has a diverse economy, ranging from agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and petroleum products, to tourism. The agricultural sector accounts for The industrial sector is mainly made up of clothing and footwear manufacturing, production of car parts, and electric machinery.

Tunisia was in ranked the most competitive economy in Africa and the 40th in the world by the World Economic Forum.

The European Union remains Tunisia's first trading partner, currently accounting for Tunisia is one of the European Union's most established trading partners in the Mediterranean region and ranks as the EU's 30th largest trading partner.

Tunisia was the first Mediterranean country to sign an Association Agreement with the European Union, in July , although even before the date of entry came into force, Tunisia started dismantling tariffs on bilateral EU trade.

Tunisia finalised the tariffs dismantling for industrial products in and therefore was the first non-EU Mediterranean country to enter in a free trade area with EU.

Tunis Sports City is an entire sports city currently being constructed in Tunis, Tunisia. Tunisia Economic City is a city being constructed near Tunis in Enfidha.

The project is financed by Tunisian and foreign enterprises. Days before Tunisia's parliamentary elections, the nation finds itself struggling with a sluggish economy.

Nevertheless, Tunisia could not accomplish anything more than freedom and democracy. It still finds itself hanging between inflation and unemployment while looking up to the 6 October elections with hope of a reform.

Among Tunisia's tourist attractions are its cosmopolitan capital city of Tunis, the ancient ruins of Carthage, the Muslim and Jewish quarters of Jerba, and coastal resorts outside of Monastir.

According to The New York Times, Tunisia is "known for its golden beaches, sunny weather and affordable luxuries". Sources of electricity production in Tunisia [].

In , a total of 13, GWh was produced in the country. The main field is El Bourma. Oil production began in in Tunisia. Currently there are 12 oil fields.

Tunisia had plans for two nuclear power stations , to be operational by Both facilities are projected to produce — MW.

France is set to become an important partner in Tunisia's nuclear power plans, having signed an agreement, along with other partners, to deliver training and technology.

Instead, Tunisia is considering other options to diversify its energy mix, such as renewable energies, coal, shale gas, liquified natural gas and constructing a submarine power interconnection with Italy.

A new airport, Enfidha — Hammamet International Airport opened in The airport is located north of Sousse at Enfidha and is to mainly serve the resorts of Hamammet and Port El Kantaoui, together with inland cities such as Kairouan.

Tunisia has achieved the highest access rates to water supply and sanitation services in the Middle East and North Africa.

In , ONAS was established to manage the sanitation sector. Since , ONAS has had the status of a main operator for protection of water environment and combating pollution.

According to the CIA, as of , Tunisia has a population of 11,, inhabitants. According to the Tunisian census, Tunisia had a population at the time of 3,, residents, of which mainly Berbers and Arabs.

Amazighs are concentrated in the Dahar mountains and on the island of Djerba in the south-east and in the Khroumire mountainous region in the north-west.

That said, an important number of genetic and other historical studies point out to the predominance of the Amazighs in Tunisia. An Ottoman influence has been particularly significant in forming the Turco-Tunisian community.

Other peoples have also migrated to Tunisia during different periods of time, including West Africans, Greeks , Romans , Phoenicians Punics , Jews , and French settlers.

From the late 19th century to after World War II, Tunisia was home to large populations of French and Italians , Europeans in , [] although nearly all of them, along with the Jewish population, left after Tunisia became independent.

The history of the Jews in Tunisia goes back some 2, years. In the Jewish population was an estimated ,, but by only about remained.

The first people known to history in what is now Tunisia were the Berbers. There was a continuing inflow of nomadic Arab tribes from Arabia.

According to Matthew Carr, "As many as eighty thousand Moriscos settled in Tunisia, most of them in and around the capital, Tunis, which still contains a quarter known as Zuqaq al-Andalus, or Andalusia Alley.

Arabic is the official language , and Tunisian Arabic , known as Tounsi, [] is the national, vernacular variety of Arabic and is used by the public.

French also plays a major role in Tunisian society, despite having no official status. It is widely used in education e. However, the Turks brought with them the teaching of the Hanafi School during the Ottoman rule, which still survives among the Turkish descended families today, and their mosques traditionally have octagonal minarets.

Tunisia has a sizable Christian community of around over 35, adherents, [] [] mainly Catholics 22, and to a lesser degree Protestants.

Berber Christians continued to live in some Nefzaoua villages up until the early 15th century [] and the community of Tunisian Christians existed in the town of Tozeur up to the 18th century.

One-third of the Jewish population lives in and around the capital. The remainder lives on the island of Djerba with 39 synagogues where the Jewish community dates back 2, years, [] in Sfax, and in Hammam-Lif.

Many Jews consider it a pilgrimage site, with celebrations taking place there once every year due to its age and the legend that the synagogue was built using stones from Solomon's temple.

The constitution declares Islam as the official state religion and requires the President to be Muslim. Aside from the president, Tunisians enjoy a significant degree of religious freedom, a right enshrined and protected in its constitution, which guarantees the freedom of thoughts, beliefs and to practice one's religion.

The country has a secular culture where religion is separated from not only political, but in public life. During the pre-revolution era there were at some point restrictions in the wearing of Islamic head scarves hijab in government offices and on public streets and public gatherings.

The government believed the hijab is a "garment of foreign origin having a partisan connotation". There were reports that the Tunisian police harassed men with "Islamic" appearance such as those with beards , detained them, and sometimes compelled men to shave their beards off.

In , the former Tunisian president declared that he would "fight" the hijab, which he refers to as "ethnic clothing".

After the revolution however, a moderate Islamist government was elected leading to more freedom in the practice of religion.

It has also made room for the rise of fundamentalist groups such as the Salafists , who call for a strict interpretation of Sharia law.

Individual Tunisians are tolerant of religious freedom and generally do not inquire about a person's personal beliefs. In a handful of men were arrested for eating in public during Ramadan; they were convicted of committing "a provocative act of public indecency" and sentenced to month-long jail sentences.

The state in Tunisia has a role as a "guardian of religion" which was used to justify the arrests. A basic education for children between the ages of 6 and 16 has been compulsory since Tunisia ranked 17th in the category of "quality of the [higher] educational system" and 21st in the category of "quality of primary education" in The Global Competitiveness Report —9, released by The World Economic Forum.

While children generally acquire Tunisian Arabic at home, when they enter school at age 6, they are taught to read and write in Standard Arabic.

From the age of 7, they are taught French while English is introduced at the age of 8. The Enseignement secondaire is divided into two stages: general academic and specialized.

The higher education system in Tunisia has experienced a rapid expansion and the number of students has more than tripled over the past 10 years from approximately , in to , in The gross enrollment rate at the tertiary level in was 31 percent, with gender parity index of GER of 1.

In , spending on healthcare accounted for 3. In , there were The birth of Tunisian contemporary painting is strongly linked to the School of Tunis, established by a group of artists from Tunisia united by the desire to incorporate native themes and rejecting the influence of Orientalist colonial painting.

Given its doctrine, some members have therefore turned to the sources of aesthetic Arab-Muslim art: such as miniature Islamic architecture, etc.

After independence in , the art movement in Tunisia was propelled by the dynamics of nation building and by artists serving the state.

Sadok Gmech draws his inspiration from national wealth while Moncef Ben Amor turns to fantasy. In another development, Youssef Rekik reused the technique of painting on glass and founded Nja Mahdaoui calligraphy with its mystical dimension.

There are currently fifty art galleries housing exhibitions of Tunisian and international artists. A new exposition opened in an old monarchal palace in Bardo dubbed the "awakening of a nation".

The exposition boasts documents and artifacts from the Tunisian reformist monarchal rule in mid 19th century.

Tunisian literature exists in two forms: Arabic and French. Arabic literature dates back to the 7th century with the arrival of Arab civilization in the region.

It is more important in both volume and value than French literature, introduced during the French protectorate from Among the literary figures include Ali Douagi , who has produced more than radio stories, over poems and folk songs and nearly 15 plays, [] Khraief Bashir, an Arabic novelist who published many notable books in the s and which caused a scandal because the dialogues were written in Tunisian dialect, [] and others such as Moncef Ghachem, Mohamed Salah Ben Mrad , or Mahmoud Messadi.

As for poetry, Tunisian poetry typically opts for nonconformity and innovation with poets such as Aboul-Qacem Echebbi. As for literature in French, it is characterized by its critical approach.

The themes of wandering, exile and heartbreak are the focus of their creative writing. The national bibliography lists non-school books published in in Tunisia, with titles in Arabic.

In Tunisian American creative nonfiction scribe and translator Med-Ali Mekki who wrote many books, not for publication but just for his own private reading translated the new Constitution of the Tunisian Republic from Arabic to English for the first time in Tunisian bibliographical history, the book was published worldwide the following year and it was the Internet's most viewed and downloaded Tunisian book.

At the beginning of the 20th century, musical activity was dominated by the liturgical repertoire associated with different religious brotherhoods and secular repertoire which consisted of instrumental pieces and songs in different Andalusian forms and styles of origins, essentially borrowing characteristics of musical language.

In " The Rachidia " was founded well known thanks to artists from the Jewish community. The founding in of a musical school helped revive Arab Andalusian music largely to a social and cultural revival led by the elite of the time who became aware of the risks of loss of the musical heritage and which they believed threatened the foundations of Tunisian national identity.

The institution did not take long to assemble a group of musicians, poets, scholars. The creation of Radio Tunis in allowed musicians a greater opportunity to disseminate their works.

On 7 November , President Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali announced the demerger of the business, which became effective on 31 August Most programs are in Arabic but some are in French.

Before the recent democratic transition, although freedom of the press was formally guaranteed by the constitution, almost all newspapers have in practice followed the government line report.

Critical approach to the activities of the president, government and the Constitutional Democratic Rally Party then in power were suppressed.

In essence, the media was dominated by state authorities through the Agence Tunis Afrique Presse. This has changed since, as the media censorship by the authorities have been largely abolished, and self-censorship has significantly decreased.

Football is the most popular sport in Tunisia. The premier football league is the " Tunisian Ligue Professionnelle 1 ". The Tunisia national handball team has participated in several handball world championships.

In , Tunisia came fourth. The national league consists of about 12 teams, with ES. Sahel and Esperance S.

Tunis dominating. The most famous Tunisian handball player is Wissem Hmam. In the Handball Championship in Tunis , Wissem Hmam was ranked as the top scorer of the tournament.

The Tunisian national handball team won the African Cup ten times, being the team dominating this competition. Tunisia's national basketball team has emerged as a top side in Africa.

The team won the Afrobasket and hosted Africa's top basketball event in , and In boxing , Victor Perez "Young" was world champion in the flyweight weight class in and In , Tunisia participated for the seventh time in her history in the Summer Paralympic Games.

She finished the competition with 19 medals; 9 golds, 5 silvers and 5 bronzes. Tunisia was classified 14th on the Paralympics medal table and 5th in Athletics.

Tunisia was suspended from Davis Cup play for the year , because the Tunisian Tennis Federation was found to have ordered Malek Jaziri not to compete against an Israeli tennis player, Amir Weintraub.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 2 August Country in North Africa.

Tunisian Arabic [3] Berber [4] [5] [6] [7] French administrative, commercial and educational. See also: Etymology of Tunis. Main article: History of Tunisia.

Main articles: Capsian culture and Ancient Carthage. Main article: History of medieval Tunisia. Main article: Ottoman Tunisia. Main article: French protectorate of Tunisia.

Main article: History of modern Tunisia. See also: Tunisian Revolution. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Main article: Geography of Tunisia. Main article: Politics of Tunisia. Main article: Human rights in Tunisia.

Main article: Tunisian Armed Forces. Main articles: Governorates of Tunisia and Delegations of Tunisia. Mediterranean sea. Sidi Bouzid.

Ben Arous. Main article: Economy of Tunisia. Main article: Tourism in Tunisia. Main article: Energy sector in Tunisia.

Main article: Transport in Tunisia. Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Tunisia. Main article: Tunisian people.

Main article: Languages of Tunisia. Largest cities or towns in Tunisia According to the Census []. Tunisia Religions Islam. Main article: Religion in Tunisia.

Main article: Education in Tunisia. Main article: Health in Tunisia. Main article: Culture of Tunisia. Main article: Tunisian literature. Main article: Music of Tunisia.

Main article: Media of Tunisia. Main article: Sport in Tunisia. Africa portal. Archived from the original PDF on 9 February Retrieved 10 February Translation by the University of Bern: "Tunisia is a free State, independent and sovereign; its religion is the Islam, its language is Arabic, and its form is the Republic.

Ethnologue 19 February Retrieved on 5 September Archived from the original on 18 October CIA World Factbook. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.

Retrieved 7 January National Institute of Statistics-Tunisia. Retrieved 2 March International Monetary Fund.

World Bank. Retrieved 19 January United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 12 December Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.

Archived from the original on 31 May Retrieved 8 November Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 30 April The Economist. Retrieved 12 September Jeune Afrique.

BBC News. Freedom House. Retrieved 30 December Pierian Press, University of Michigan. BiblioBazaar, LLC. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, — Hannibal's War: Books Twenty-one to Thirty.

Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 31 March Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original on 27 September Britannica Online Encyclopedia.

Retrieved 8 January Retrieved 7 July Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 2 May Cambridge University Press.

A History of Islamic Societies. Tunisia 3 ed. We are equipped to deliver the goods in news reportage and available to answer your questions and share in your stories on news around Tunisia.

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